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Biology

The Biology Department offers courses leading to the Master of Science (MS) with a major in biology and supporting courses for the Master of Arts with a major in liberal studies. For students majoring in secondary education with a teaching field in biology or general science, supporting courses are offered for the MS.Ed. and the Ed.S. degrees.

Students accepted to the MS with a major in biology must meet with the graduate advisor. An Advisory Committee will be selected to assist the student in developing a degree plan that satisfies University and departmental degree requirements.



Required Application Materials

Applicants for the MS with a major in biology may be permitted to enroll for one semester of graduate course work while completing all other general application procedure requirements. 

Applicants for the MS with a major in biology must submit the following documentation to the College of Graduate Studies, Jacksonville State University, 700 Pelham Road North, Jacksonville, Alabama 36265-1602, to be considered for admission:

  1. Completed JSU Graduate Application for Admission
  2. Non-refundable $35.00 application processing fee
  3. Official transcripts(s) from all postsecondary institutions attended. (Students who have previously attended JSU do not need to request a transcript from the University.)
  4. Official tests scores on the General Test of the GRE or the MAT (please refer to page 15 of thisBulletin).
  5. Three "Graduate Reference Forms" completed by individuals who can provide qualitative assessment of the applicant’s potential for success in graduate course work.
  6. If English is not the applicant’s native language, the applicant is required to submit an official TOEFL score report, an IELTS score report, or a PTE score report.


Admission Requirements

In addition to meeting the general admission requirements above, applicants for the MS with a major in biology must have an undergraduate major in biology or its equivalent, as determined by the Biology Department, including courses equivalent to Introductory Biology I (BY 101, 103), Introductory Biology II (BY 102, 104), Genetics (BY 322), Ecology (BY 332), and Cell Biology (BY 373). Applicants with majors in other natural sciences or mathematics will be considered for admission; however, additional courses may be required.

Applicants must meet one of the following admission formula requirements. For purposes of computing the undergraduate GPA, a 4.0 grade-point scale is used. The plus (+) and minus (-) grades from undergraduate transcripts are not used in calculating the GPA. 



Unconditional Admission

To obtain unconditional admission into the MS program with a major in biology, applicants must meet one of the following formula requirements:

(450 x undergraduate GPA) + (total of verbal & quantitative sections of GRE General Test) ≥ 1600 points.

OR

(15 x undergraduate GPA) + MAT score ≥ 60 points;



Conditional Admission

Any applicant failing to meet the requirements for unconditional admission may be conditionally admitted with the recommendation of the graduate faculty in the applicant’s major and approval of the Dean of the College of Graduate Studies.

Applicants who are granted conditional admission must achieve a GPA of at least 3.0 on the first 12 graduate hours attempted within a twelve-month time frame. Failure to meet these conditions will result in the student being dropped from graduate studies.



Non-Thesis Option

A minimum of 36 graduate semester hours (18 must be at the 500 level), including successful completion of an acceptable original research paper and a comprehensive examination. A minimum GPA of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale in all graduate work in biology is required. The 36 graduate semester hours for the non-thesis option will include the following courses:

  1. Four (4) 500 level courses (12 semester hours):  choose from BY 521, 533, 538, 539, 540, 542, or 562;
  2. Two (2) 500 level seminar courses (4 semester hours):  choose from BY 570, 571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, or 577
  3. BY 595 Research Project (3 semester hours); and
  4. Seventeen (17) hours of committee approved electives (17 hours).
36 Graduate Semester Hours Required for the Non-Thesis Option


Thesis Option

A minimum of 30 graduate semester hours (of which half must be at the 500 level), including successful completion of an acceptable thesis and a comprehensive examination. A minimum GPA of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale in all graduate work in biology is required. The 30 graduate semester hours for the thesis option will include the following courses:

  1. Two (2) 500 level courses (6 semester hours):  choose from BY 521, 533, 535, 538, 540, 542, 546 or 562;
  2. Two (2) 500 level seminar courses (4 semester  hours): choose from BY 570, 571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, or 577;
  3. BY 415G Biometrics (or its equivalent) (3 semester hours);
  4. BY 599 Thesis I and II (6 hours); and
  5. Eleven (11) hours of committee approved electives (11 semester hours).

 30 Graduate Semester Hours Required for the Thesis Option





Biology Courses

Prefix BY


402G.    Medical Microbiology (4). Prerequisites: BY 323 or 283 and permission of the instructor. Study of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites of humans and some domestic animals; identification of pathogens, disease processes, and public health emphasized; lecture and laboratory.
403G.    Immunology (4). Prerequisite: BY 373; BY 323 recommended. Study of immunity and how the immune system responds to specific infectious and non-infectious agents; comparative immunology of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, immunological disorders, and application of immunological techniques; lecture and laboratory.
405G.    Animal Behavior (3). Prerequisite: BY 332. Genetic and anatomical bases of behavior; impact of behavior on the ecology of animals emphasized; lecture, discussion, demonstration and library studies.
406G.    Ornithology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. History, classification, anatomy, physiology, ecology, and distribution of birds; laboratory emphasis on field identification and ecology; lecture, laboratory, and field studies.
407G.    Mammalogy (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. Aspects of the biology, ecology, taxonomy, and distribution of southeastern mammals; lecture, laboratory, and field studies.
412G.    Plant Reproduction and Development (4). Prerequisites: BY 322, 373; CY 105, 106, 107, 108 recommended. Study of structural and functional aspects of reproductive and developmental phenomena in vascular plants; lecture and laboratory.
413G.    Animal Reproduction and Development (4). Prerequisites: BY 322, 373; CY 105, 106, 107, 108 recommended. Study of the structural and functional aspects of reproductive and developmental phenomena in animals with emphasis on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved; lecture and laboratory.
415G.    Biometrics (3). Prerequisites: BY 322, 332, or 373 and MS 204. An introduction statistics for biology majors. This course will introduce students to appropriate statistics for analyzing biological data including how to select random samples, use of basic statistical packages, post-hoc statistical testing and the use of linear regression and will use real-world examples of statistics in ecological, toxicological, and physiological research; lecture and laboratory. Recommended as an elective for non-thesis option students.
422G.    Biology of Cryptograms (4). Prerequisites: BY 332, 373. The study of blue-green algae, algae, slime molds, bryophytes, and lichens; lecture, laboratory, field, and library study. Extensive field and laboratory identifications.
431G.    Cellular Physiology (4). Prerequisites: BY 373, CY 105, 106, 107, 108; CY 231, 232 recommended. Systematic survey of cellular physiology in eukaryotic cells, membranes, energetics, and genetic expression emphasized; lecture and laboratory.
432G.    Experimental Ecology (4). Prerequisites: BY 332; MS 204, CS 201 recommended. Experimental design and analysis of ecological data using appropriate ecological instrumentation; lecture, laboratory, and field studies.
434G.    Animal Systems Physiology (4). Prerequisites: BY 373; CY 105, 106, 107, 108; CY 231, 232 and one semester of physics recommended. Systematic survey of organ system physiology in vertebrates; systems analysis, biophysics, and bioengineering emphasized; lecture and laboratory.
435G.    Landscape Ecology and Management (4). Prerequisites: BY 332, MS 204. Lecture, laboratory, and field study. The role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the management of wildlife and natural resources is emphasized. Topics addressed include detection and description of heterogeneity, landscape dynamics and models, ecosystem management, adaptive management, genetics in conservation and management, population dynamics, community management, landscape-level conservation, managing biodiversity, and human interactions with ecosystems.
438G.    Freshwater Biology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. Analysis of the unique ecology and biology of the freshwater environment; extensive field work; research project; lecture, laboratory, and field studies.
439G.    Microbial Ecology (4). Prerequisites: BY 323, 332. Microbial component of the global ecosystem including interactions among microorganisms and between microorganisms, plants, and animals, biogeochemical cycles, and application to various technologies; lecture, laboratory, and field studies.
440G.    Evolutionary Biology (4). Prerequisite: BY 322. Study of the processes and mechanisms which lead to evolutionary change in the biota; lecture, laboratory and field studies.
442G.    General Entomology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. Lecture, laboratory, and field study of insects and other arthropods, with an emphasis on the taxonomy, morphology, physiology, and ecology of the insects.
445G.    Ecotoxicology (4). Prerequisites: BY 332, 373. Recommended: BY 322. This course is a survey of ecotoxicology. The study of the integration of the major processes involved with transport, exposure and response of biological systems to xenobiotics, how toxicants mediate interactions between organisms and their biotic and abiotic environments and, the impact and toxic effects of pollutants on diversity, growth and metabolism of living organisms, populations, communities, and the ecosystem; lecture, laboratory and field study.
450G.    Molecular Biology (4). Prerequisites: BY 322, 373 or permission of the instructor. Study of the processes involved in the expression of biological information at the molecular level; lecture and laboratory.
451G.    Plant Anatomy (4). Prerequisite: BY 373. Study of the comparative structural organization of the vegetative and reproductive parts of seed plants, from cells to tissues to systems; lecture and laboratory.
452G.    Plant Taxonomy (4). Prerequisite: BY 322 or 332. Survey of plant nomenclature, identification systems, description, evolution, and classification; vascular plants emphasized; lecture, library, laboratory, and field studies.
453G.    Dendrology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. Lecture, laboratory and field study. The identification, taxonomy, ecological characteristics, distribution and economic importance of trees native and ornamentals native to North America.
454G.    Tropical Biology (3). Prerequisites: BY 101, 102, 103, 104, and permission of instructor. An extensive field trip to study the flora and fauna of tropical regions. A written and oral report is required.
455G.    Plant Ecology (4). Prerequisite: BY 322 or 332. Major plant communities of the southeastern U.S. and their relationships with major abiotic features; autecological field studies of plant species and populations included; lecture, laboratory, library and field studies.
458G.    Herpetology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. Recommended: BY 320. Taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and external anatomy of amphibians and reptiles; conservation and field methodology emphasized; lecture, laboratory and field studies.
460G.    Ichthyology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. An overview of the evolution, ecology, behavior, physiology, and conservations of fishes. Preparation and presentation of an original library or lab/field research project required. Lecture, laboratory, and field study.
464G.    Wetland Ecosystems (4). Prerequisite: A course in ecology. A survey of families and species of wetland plants, including a review of their morphology, ecology, systematic, dynamics and function of individual species; extensive field work; research project; lecture, laboratory and field studies.
475G.    Economic Botany (4). Prerequisite: BY 322 or 332. Collection identification, culture and preservation of plants for illustration and utilization in the classroom and laboratory; two class periods and one laboratory period per week.
476G.    Invertebrate Zoology (4). Prerequisite: BY 332. Systematics, ecology, physiology, and phylogentic relationships of invertebrate animals; lecture, laboratory, and field studies.
477G.    Cell and Tissue Culture (4). Prerequisites: BY 101, 102, 103, 104, 373, CY 105-108. Recommended: BY 322, 412, 431 and CY 231. Cell and Tissue Culture is an advanced biology course dealing with in vitro manipulation of cells, organs, and tissues; both solid and suspension culture and their application to biotechnology. Lecture and laboratory.
478G.    Endocrinology (3). Prerequisites: BY 373 and BY 434 or permission of the instructor. Introduction to vertebrate endocrine systems and the variety of chemical messengers involved in the regulation of physiological processes. Topics will include discussions of the history and methodologies of endocrinology, hormone synthesis, physiological effects of hormones, and the mechanism of hormone actions.
479G.    Plant Physiology (4). Prerequisite: BY 373; BY 451 recommended. Mineral nutrition, water relations, photosynthesis, metabolism and transport in vascular plants; lecture and laboratory.
480G.    Advanced Topics in Biology I (1). Prerequisite: BY 322 or 332 or 373. Lecture and discussion; topics to be posted in the Biology Department.
481G.    Advanced Topics in Biology II (1). Prerequisite: BY 322 or 332 or 373. Lecture and discussion; topics to be posted in the Biology Department.
503.    Special Problems in Biology (2). Special topics approved by instructor after consideration of students background.
504.    Problems in Biology (1). Special topics approved by instructor after consideration of students background.
521.    Physiological Adaptations (3). Prerequisites: graduate standing and BY 434 or its equivalent. An in-depth survey of selected topics in comparative physiology. Interactions between organisms and their environments will be examined with an emphasis on molecular and cellular adaptations. Phenotypic differences in adaptations will serve as a central theme for this course. Designed to expose students to the various topics through lecture, primary literature, and lab presentations/activities.
533.    Advanced Plant Biology (3). Prerequisite: graduate standing. Study of plant biology consisting of lectures, discussions, investigative laboratory exercises on the topics of plant classification, plant anatomy and reproduction, plant growth and development, the physiology and biochemistry of plants, plants genetics and molecular biology, plants interactions with their environments, and the impacts of plants to our society. Designed to expose students to the various topics through lecture, primary literature, and lab presentations/activities.
535.    Functional Vertebrate Anatomy (3). Prerequisite: BY 320 or equivalent, or permission of the instructor. Lecture and demonstration. This course will emphasize the adaptations of vertebrate animals as revealed by morphology and will study the anatomy of vertebrates, as it relates to topics such as locomotion, reproductions, digestion, and physiology. In addition, molecular and morphological phylogeny of vertebrate groups using datasets will be studied. Designed to expose students to the various topics through lecture, primary literature, and lab presentations/activities.
538.    Population and Community Ecology (3). This course addresses theoretical and applied issues at both the population and community levels. Topics include population and community structure/stability, trophic relations, population interactions, population and community dynamics, landscape ecology, and others. Discussion of primary literature will be a large part of this course.
540.    Invertebrate Relationships (3). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. An analysis of recently published research in the anatomy, morphology, phylogeny, and physiology of invertebrate animals. The major invertebrate phya (including parasitic forms) will be emphasized. Designed to expose students to the various topics through lecture, primary literature, and lab presentations/activities.
542.    Biodiversity: The Kingdoms of Living Things (3). Prerequisite: BY 332 or its equivalent. Lectures and demonstrations. Biodiversity emphasizing systematic, phylogeny, structure, function, life cycles, ecology, and economics. Designed to expose students to the various topics through lecture, primary literature, and lab presentations/activities.
546.    Molecular Genetics (3). Prerequisites: BY 322 or its equivalent or permission of the instructor. A survey of molecular genetics focusing on the analysis of genomes, genes, and chromosomes. Discussion of modern genetic analysis techniques will be integrated into these topics. Biotechnology topics will include nucleic acid isolation methods, PCR, gene expression analysis, gene cloning, expression systems, proteomics, DNA sequencing, and molecular phylogenetic analysis.
562.    Symbiotic Associations (3). Prerequisites: BY 322, 332, 373 or equivalent and one 400 level organismal courses. Analysis of the nature and mechanism of symbiotic associations, including commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, that involve interactions between organisms. Designed to expose students to the various topics through lecture, primary literature, and lab presentations/activities.
570.    Seminar in Developmental Biology (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in developmental biology of cells, tissues, and organ systems in plants, animals, or microbes; independent library research required.
571.    Seminar in Organismal Biology (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research focusing on specific groups of organisms; independent library research required.
572.    Seminar in Ecology (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in plant, animal, or microbial ecology; independent library research required.
573.    Seminar in Cell Biology (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in cellular biology; independent library research required.
574.    Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in evolutionary biology; independent library research required.
575.    Seminar in Genetics (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in plant, animal, or microbial genetics; independent library research required.
576.    Seminar in Physiology (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in plant, animal, or microbial physiology; independent library research required.
577.    Seminar in Systematics (2). Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Presentation, discussion, and analysis of recently published research in systematic biology; independent library research required.
595.    Research Project (3). (Grade of Pass or Fail only) Prerequisites: Completion of at least 20 hours of graduate study in biology, and permission of the instructor. Completion of an acceptable original research paper; non-thesis option only.
596.    Research I (1). (Grade of Pass or Fail only). Prerequisites: Approval of Application for Thesis Option and permission of the instructor. Original field and/or laboratory research in the biological sciences; thesis option only.
599.    Thesis (3). (Grade of Pass or Fail only) Prerequisite: Approval of Application for Thesis Option.


Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium Courses

Prefix MBY

Graduate students may take marine biology courses for credit toward the MS with a major in biology and supporting courses for the MA with a major in liberal studies. For students majoring in secondary education with a teaching field in biology or general science, supporting courses are offered for the MS.Ed. and the Ed.S. degrees.

 

These courses are offered only at the Dauphin Island Sea Lab (Dauphin Island, Alabama) which is sponsored by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium (MESC). The Consortium is composed of 23 Alabama colleges and universities. Special laboratory fees, tuition, and frequency of courses are determined by the Sea Lab staff. Information concerning number of class periods and laboratories, application, and registration may be obtained from the Marine Biology advisor, Room 242 Martin Hall, in the Biology Department at JSU.


410G.    Marine Fisheries Science (4). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. In-depth study of the principles and methods of fishery biology and their application to conservation; lecture and laboratories.
411G.    Marine Ecology (4). Prerequisites: Graduate standing in biology; marine invertebrate zoology or marine biology (one semester of physics recommended). Bioenergetics, community structure, population dynamics, predation, competition, and speciation in marine ecosystems will be studied; lecture and laboratory work will be included, although considerable time will be spent in field work; individual species will be studied as they relate to ecological principles which they exemplify, thus providing both a taxonomic and ecologic background.
412G.    Coastal Ornithology (4). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. Study of coastal and pelagic birds with emphasis on ecology, taxonomy, and distribution; identification, population dynamics, and behavior of coastal birds; lecture, laboratory, and overnight trips to offshore islands.
415G.    Marine Botany (4). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. General study of coastal and marine flora with emphasis on taxonomy, morphology, physiology, ecology, and distribution; community structure in various ecosystems will be studied; students will have an opportunity to examine pelagic, marshland, estuarine, beach, sand dune, and inlet niches.
417G.    Estuarine Science (4). Survey of estuarine ecosystems with particular emphasis on the interactions between physical, geological, chemical, and biological processes; lecture, laboratory, and field trips.
420G.    Coral Reef Ecology (4). Examines the ecology and evolution of coral reef communities, seagrass beds, and mangrove swamps with exploration of such issues as the degradation of reef-building corals and sea urchins, over-fishing and pollution. Students will participate in lectures and field exercises in the vicinity of Dauphin Island, and will take a one-week field trip to Andros Island, Bahamas.
421G.    Special Topics: Marine Conservation Biology (4). Intended to develop a student’s understanding of conservation biology by building upon the foundations of ecology; lectures and field exercises; requires students to develop a topical term paper and give a presentation.
423G.    Marsh Ecology (4). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. Study of floral and faunal elements of various marine marsh communities; interaction of physical and biological factors will be emphasized; structured to provide field experience in addition to lecture material; trips will be scheduled to acquaint students with regional examples of marsh types.
427G.    Marine Technical Methods I (2). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. Introduction to instruments and procedures normally utilized aboard a marine research vessel; includes physical, biological, chemical, and geological parameter measurements and sample collections; basic positioning and communication procedures included.
428G.    Marine Technical Methods II (2). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. Introduction to the laboratory methodology associated with the usual chemical parameters of nutrient analysis; laboratory approach will be pursued; shipboard and other specific skills will be developed.
460G.    Dolphins and Whales (2). Designed to enable students to make rapid, accurate, and thoughtful use of a customized reference file and laboratory and field notes to respond to questions about the classification, anatomy, and ecology of marine mammals; lecture and laboratory.
461G.    Marine Behavioral Ecology (4). Examines how animal behavior is influenced by and interacts with its environment, and the ecological and evolutionary significance of these behaviors in a marine setting; lectures, laboratory, and field exercises (some overnight).
462G.    Marine Protozoology (3). Study of the major groups of protists from a variety of marine habitats including their taxonomy, structure, ecology of methods of identification; lectures, laboratory, and field trips.
463G.    Marine Fish Diseases (3). Introduction to marine animal diseases, specifically finfish and shellfish; practical microbiological techniques for isolation and identification of diseases; lecture, laboratory, and field trips.
464G.    Introduction to Neurobiology (5). Introduction to the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of marine invertebrates and vertebrates; Neuroism computer package used to help illustrate the basic principles and to allow a detailed exploration of neurophysiology and neutral networks; lecture and laboratory.
486G.    Marine Vertebrate Zoology (4). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. Study of marine fish, reptiles, and mammals, with a comprehensive treatment of their systematics, zoogeography, and ecology; lectures will encompass subject matter on a non-regional basis; field and laboratory work will stress the vertebrate fauna of the northern Gulf of Mexico; students will have the opportunity to assemble a collection of vertebrate species.
487G.    Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4). Prerequisite: Graduate standing in biology. Examination of the systematics, ecology, physiology, and phylogenetic relationships of locally occurring marine invertebrate taxa; lecture, laboratory, and field work required; students have an opportunity to acquire collections of local fauna.
501.    Field Marine Science - Florida (2). Prerequisite: MBY 309. This course will consist of a 10-day field exercise in representative tropical sites in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Lecture, field exercises, research exercises.
505.    Fisheries Techniques (3). Prerequisite: An ichthyology course or MBY 486 or an introductory course in fisheries; introductory statistics recommended. Detailed, semi-quantitative to current biological and technological methodologies for studying fishes and aquatic habitats, with an emphasis on study design and integration across sub-disciples.
515.    Marine Resource Management (2). Designed to acquaint students to the management of marine resources, development of legislation, evolution of policy, legal processes, and impacts on human resources; lecture and discussion sessions.
530.    Marine Microbial Ecology (3). General survey of the types of micro-organisms found in the marine environment; emphasis will be on the interaction of micro-organisms with each other and with their environment; lecture and discussion sessions.
540.    Marine Biology for Teachers (6). Prerequisites: One year of general biology and graduate standing in biology. General survey of marine plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, the communities they form and the physical and chemical factors which influence their lives; second component will cover materials and methods of instruction on marine topics.
542.    Marine Plankton (3). Prerequisite: MBY 566. Familiarizes students with the taxonomic breadth of phytoplankton, bacterioplankton, and zooplankton in estuaries, coastal seas, and open oceans; lecture and discussion sessions.
554.    Marine Biogeography and Paleobiology (3). Prerequisite: BY 332 or MBY 411. Broad overview of the time course of evolutionary changes in the structure and function of marine ecosystems, and will consider the interacting roles of both historical and current factors as they influence the distribution and abundance of marine organisms; lecture and discussion sessions.
555.    Marine Biogeochemical Processes (2). Prerequisites: Graduate standing in biology and a background that includes inorganic and organic chemistry, geology, marine ecology or oceanography. Interaction between biological, chemical, and geological processes in the marine environment; examination of the cycling of major elements, how these cycles differ between different marine ecosystems and how these processes serve to regulate ecosystem functioning.
558.    Advanced Marine Ecology (2). Prerequisites: BY 332 and MBY 411. Study of the understanding of ecological processes with an emphasis on the mechanisms that control the distribution of plants and animals at scales ranging from the individual to the ecosystem; lecture and discussion sessions.
559.    Benthic Ecology (2). Prerequisite: BY 332 or MBY 411G. Evolutionary history and the ecology of marine benthic communities from the earliest fossils to the present; topics include predation, competition, adult/larval interactions, dispersal mechanisms, productivity, materials cycling, and the relative importance of grazing and detritus in different ecosystems.
564.    Marine Zoogeography (4). Prerequisite: 12 semester hours of biology. Study of physical, chemical, and biological factors influencing distribution of marine organisms; importance of continents; open oceans, and species competition on animal distribution; special attention to zoogeographical patterns in the Gulf of Mexico, western North Atlantic, and Caribbean regions.
566.    Biological Oceanography (3). Focuses on patterns and processes that are of consequence to the interaction of organisms and the sea and encompasses both pelagic and benthic environments; lecture, laboratory, and discussions.
567.    Fisheries Oceanography (2). Examination of the relationships between fish and life history, recruitment dynamics and harvest potential, and local-, meso-, and global-scale oceanographic processes; lecture and discussion sessions.
572.    Coastal Ecosystems Dynamics (2). Prerequisite: MBY 566 recommended. Investigation of the basic principles of ecosystem structure and function; course divided into two parts: an instructional phase of learning basics of ecosystem modeling, and a student-led investigation of the structure and function of a variety of coastal ecosystems.
591.    Directed Research (2). Prerequisites: Special arrangement and permission of the instructor. Research in any subject areas of marine science currently offered at the Sea Lab.


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