Remote Sensing Vocabulary Chapter 12

acidic igneous rocks, agents of erosion, alluvial, alluvial fan, alluvial fan, alpine glaciation, anastomotic pattern, andesite, angle of repose, annular drainage pattern, anticlinal valley, anticline, arcuate delta, arête, asymmetrical ridge, asymmetrical fold, avalanche, backswamp, badland topography, bajada, barchan, barchanoid ridge, barrier beach, basalt, basic igneous rocks, basin, batholith, baymouth bar, bedding surfaces, bedrock, birdfoot delta, block faulting, bluff formation, braided pattern, breccia, brittle deformation, butte, caprock, centrifugal drainage pattern, centripetal drainage pattern, cinder cone, cirque, coarse-textured drainage, composite cone, continental glacier, continental glaciation, convergence-of-information principle, cuesta, dacite, delta, dendritic drainage pattern, depositional landforms, deranged drainage pattern, diabase, diastrophism, dichotomic drainage pattern, dike, diorite, dip, dip direction, dip-strike fault, distributaries, dome dunes, dome, drainage patterns, drainage texture, drumlin, drumlin swarm, dune field, eolian, erosional landforms, esker, esker, estuarine delta, estuary, exfoliation, extrusive igneous rocks, fault plane, fault, fine-textured drainage, fissure, floodplain, fluvial landforms, footwall, fracture, gabbro, geologic structure, geologic time scale, glacial trough, glacial, gneiss, graben, granite, hanging wall, hanging trough, hanging valley, hogback, hogback, hook, horn, horns of a dune, horst, ice sheet, icefall, igneous, interdune corridors, intrusive igneous rock, joint, karst topography, laccolith, lagoon, landforms, lateral moraine, lava, lava flow, left lateral fault, limb, limestone, lineaments, lithology, loess, longitudinal dune, longshore current, magma, marble, marine terrace, mass wasting, mature floodplain, meander scar, meander, medial moraine, medium-textured drainage, mesa, metamorphic, monocline, moraine, moraines, mud flat, natural levees, normal fault, oblique-slip fault, orthogneiss, outcrop, overturned fold, oxbow lake, paragneiss, parallel drainage pattern, photogeologist, photogeology, pinnate drainage pattern, plastic deformation, playa, plutonic rocks, porous rock, pyroclastics, quartzite, radial drainage pattern, radiating dikes, rectangular drainage pattern, reverse fault, rhyolite, right lateral fault, ring dikes, rock step, salina, saltpan, sand dune, sand sea, sand flat, sand bar, sandstone, scarp, schist, sedimentary, seifs, sets, shale, shield cone, sill, sinkhole drainage pattern, sinkhole, slate, slip face, soluable rock, spit, spit, star dunes, stock, stoss end, strandlines, stratigraphic thickness, stratovolcano, strike, strike-slip fault, structural features, surficial deposits, swale, symmetrical ridge, symmetrical fold, synclinal ridge, syncline, synoptic view, talus, terrace, thrust fault, tidal marsh, tidal flat, till plain, till plain, tilt block, transverse dune, trellis drainage pattern, tuff, U-shaped valley, vent, volcanic plug, volcanic neck, volcano, woolstacks

  1. The use of aerial photographs to obtain both qualitative and quantitative geologic information
  2. A person who infers or predicts subsurface characteristics and relationships from aerial photographs
  3. Interpretation using first small-scale photographs for a synoptic view and gradually focusing upon a local or target area by interpreting successively larger scale photographs
  4. The calendar of earth history
  5. The study of rock characteristics
  6. The relationship between rocks including rock types, folds, faults, and igneous bodies
  7. Rocks formed from melted rock
  8. Rocks formed from broken and eroded rocks
  9. Rocks which have been changed by heat, pressure, and or chemical action
  10. The solid rock that composes the earth
  11. The broken rock debris at the earth's surface
  12. Those things which act to wear away the earth's surface naturally, and are running water, ground water, wind, waves, gravity, and glaciers
  13. Deposits made by running water
  14. Related to plastic ice
  15. Related to wind
  16. Related to erosion by gravity, mass movement
  17. A gently sloping conical deposit formed by a stream emerging from a steep narrow valley onto a broader lowland
  18. Deposit of sand parallel to the shoreline made by wave action
  19. A sand bar extending across a bay or cove but attached only at one end
  20. A remnant of a valley floor before rejuvenation of a stream, remainder of part of an old floodplain at a higher level than the present one, indicates rejuvenation has occurred
  21. A long, narrow remnant ridge of sand and gravel which was in the bed of a stream on, under, or inside a glacier
  22. An elongated oval shaped hill deposited by a glacier which indicates the direction of movement of the ice
  23. Hill of wind blown medium-sized sediment
  24. Wind-blown deposit of silt-sized particles, sometimes associated with glaciation
  25. Accumulation of rock debris at the base of a cliff
  26. Includesfolds, faults, dikes, laccoliths, sills, joints, etc.
  27. Internal deformation forces of the earth
  28. Structural changes of earth materials by the bending and folding of earth materials without rupture
  29. Structural changes through breaking of earth materials
  30. Geometrical pattern formed by a stream network or system as depicted on a map
  31. Distinctive geometric configurations of the earth's land surface that can be classified or identified by compositional, physical, and visual characteristics
  32. Surface configurations created by the deposition of material by the agents of erosion
  33. Surface configurations created by the removal of material by the agents of erosion
  34. The angle formed by a horizontal plane and a rock layer; the direction in which a rock layer extends further underground
  35. The compass or map direction in which a rock layer extends further underground
  36. The direction formed by the intersection of a rock layer and a horizontal plane; the strike direction is perpendicular to the dip direction
  37. The top (or bottom) of a sedimentary rock
  38. The depth of a rock deposit, the dimension from the bottom of the unit to the top of the unit
  39. Upfold of rock layers
  40. Downfold of rock layers
  41. Dipping rock between an anticline and a sycline
  42. Fold with dip angles approximately the same on both sides
  43. Fold with different dip angles on opposite sides of the axis
  44. Tight fold in which the law of superposition is reversed by some of the beds
  45. Doubly plunging anticline
  46. Doubly plunging syncline
  47. Eroded anticline which produces a valley by faster erosion of a weak bed
  48. Eroded syncline which produces a mountain by slower erosion of a resistant rock unit
  49. Resistant rock which protects underlying rock, often associated with mesas and buttes; also the top impermeable layer which confines water in an aquifer
  50. A steplike bend in otherwise horizontal or gently dipping beds
  51. A break in the rock along which movement has occurred
  52. A break in the rock that may be either a joint or a fault
  53. A break in the rock along which no movement has occurred
  54. A group of joints trending in the same direction
  55. The surface along which the breakage and movement of a fault has occurred
  56. Movement along a fault plane that is predominantly vertical and parallel to the fault plane's dip
  57. Movement along a fault plane that is predominantly horizontal and parallel to the fault plane's strike
  58. Movement along a fault plane that has both vertical and horizontal displacement
  59. Fault in which the hanging wall block has moved upward relative to the foot wall block
  60. Vertical fault block in which the block extends above the fault plane resulting in it overhanging the fault plane
  61. Vertical fault block in which the fault plane extends above the block so that the fault plane if exposed could be a climbable surface
  62. A vertical fault with a fault plane dip of less than fifteen degrees
  63. Fault in which the hanging wall block has moved downward relative to the foot wall block
  64. Cliff, often associated with faulting, short for escarpment
  65. Series of elevated and depressed blocks from vertical faults
  66. An upthrust block between two neighboring blocks (resultant position need not indicate direction of movement)
  67. A faulted block which has only one pronounced scarp and a dip resulting from the faulting
  68. A downthrust block between two neighboring blocks (resultant position need not indicate direction of movement)
  69. Horizontal fault in which the objects on the opposite block have been moved to the right by faulting
  70. Horizontal fault in which the objects on the opposite block have been moved to the left by faulting
  71. Linear features on the landscape
  72. Rock with void spaces and which tends to be permeable
  73. Rock which can be dissolved by water
  74. Tributaries flow into the main stream in a pattern similar to the branches of a tree
  75. Long parallel stream with short tributary streams at right angles developing on folded strata
  76. Angular stream pattern developed on faulted or jointed bedrock
  77. Stream pattern that develops on a pronounced regional slope in one direction
  78. Pattern of streams flowing outward or inward from a central point
  79. Pattern of streams flowing outward from a central point
  80. Pattern of streams flowing into an interior basin or common center
  81. Intermittent lake in an arid region which has no outlet
  82. An interrupted radial pattern with structural control reflected as a bent trellis
  83. Drainage pattern developed on alluvial fans and deltas
  84. An out-flowing branch of a stream that does not rejoin it, characteristically occurs on a delta or alluvial fan
  85. Type of delta with sediment deposited outward along the distributaries like the toes on a bird
  86. A stream pattern with a network of small, shallow, interlaced stream channels formed with alluvium has been deposited in the channel
  87. Portion of a stream valley bordering the channel, built up of sediments brought there by the stream during times of flood
  88. The drainage pattern of a stream in late maturity
  89. A U-shaped stream valley with meanders, natural levees, backswamps, cutoffs, oxbow lakes, oxbow swamps, and meander scars
  90. A winding or looping bend in a stream channel
  91. The last remaining indication of a filled-in oxbow lake
  92. A crescent-shaped lake formed in an abandoned stream bend by a meander neck being cut off and the ends filling in with alluvium
  93. Tributaries flow into the main stream in a pattern similar to the branches of a tree
  94. Generally flat region of morainal deposits
  95. Glacial drift or till deposited chiefly by direct glacial action, the landform made of such material
  96. Asymmetrical ridge formed by the dip-slope of a resistant rock layer
  97. A funnel-shaped depression in the surface that occurs where rocks such as salt, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, or marble have been dissolved and the roof of the solution cavern has collapsed
  98. Stream pattern where streams disappear into sinkholes or are short and end in depressions, swallow-hole pattern
  99. Landscape resulting from the solution of soluble bedrock such as limestone
  100. Modification of a dendritic drainage pattern where a feather-like pattern of many small, short, parallel gullies and tributaries intersect the mainstreams at slightly acute angle forming on surfaces with high silt content such as loess
  101. Channel density
  102. High drainage density or closely spaced channels characteristic of high surface runoff on easily eroded formations
  103. Moderate drainage density or moderately spaced channels on soil and bedrock of moderate permeability
  104. Low drainage density or widely spaced channels on hard, resistant rock formations and highly permeable materials where little water is available as surface runoff
  105. Exposure of bedrock at the earth's surface
  106. Medium-sized clastic sedimentary rock
  107. Very fine-sized clastic sedimentary rock
  108. Chemical and organic division sedimentary rock composed of calcite
  109. Flat-topped plateau formed in an arid climate where a resistant horizontal layer protects the underlying layers
  110. A small, flat-topped upland formed in arid climates; a small mesa
  111. Arid region landscape developed on shales and characterized by minutely dissected hills with sharp ridgelines and steep sideslopes, fine textured drainage and pinnate
  112. Mountain with dramatically different slopes on either side of the top, usually resulting from dipping beds with a steep scarp slope on the eroded side and an gentler back slope along the dip
  113. A small asymmetrical ridge
  114. A ridge with similar slopes on both sides
  115. A steep ridge formed by dipping strata with similar slopes on both sides, thus a small symmetrical ridge
  116. Rock which cooled within the earth, plutonic rocks
  117. Name for intrusive igneous rocks
  118. Molten rock within the earth
  119. Large deep mass of intrusive igneous rock
  120. Igneous intrusion that upwarps the horizontal layers between which it penetrates
  121. Igneous intrusion similar to a batholith, but smaller
  122. Intrusion of magma parallel with the rock layers
  123. Formed by the intrusion of magma along the trace of circular faults
  124. Light colored, felsic, intrusive igneous rock
  125. Intrusive igneous rock that is intermediate in composition containing both light and dark colored minerals
  126. Dark colored, dense intrusive igneous rock
  127. Dark colored, intrusive igneous rock composed of much pyroxene
  128. Light-toned igneous rocks
  129. Dark-toned igneous rocks
  130. The peeling of rocks like an onion resulting from weathering
  131. The result of the weathering of granite into large cuboidal blocks
  132. Formed from molten rock that cools at or near the earth's surface
  133. The hole from which material emerges to form a volcano
  134. A crack in the earth from which molten rock emerges without the formation of a volcanic cone
  135. An intermediate colored igneous rock that cooled fast without gas bubbling through it
  136. A dark colored igneous rock that cooled fast without gas bubbling through it
  137. A less popular dark colored extrusive igneous rock
  138. A light colored igneous rock that cooled fast without gas bubbling through it
  139. Molten rock emitted from a volcano or fissure
  140. Broken rock fragments emitted from a volcano
  141. A large-size clastic sedimentary rock made of angular fragments
  142. A pyroclastic texture igneous rock made of volcanic rock fragments that have welded together as they cooled
  143. Conical, circular structure over a vent in the earth's crust, one of the three types of mountains
  144. Small, steep-sided volcanic cone composed of pyroclastic materials blown out of the volcano which have collected around the vent
  145. Large, gently sloping volcanic cone composed of low-viscosity lava flows, also lava cones and lava domes
  146. Volcanic cone composed of alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic materials
  147. Other name for composite cones
  148. Solidified igneous rock remaining after the erosion of an extinct volcano
  149. Solidified lava filling the central vent of a volcano
  150. Vertical igneous intrusions often found surrounding a volcano
  151. Outpouring of magma onto the earth's surface from a volcanic vent or a fissure
  152. Metamorphic rock resulting from sandstone
  153. Metamorphic rock resulting from shale
  154. Metamorphic rock resulting from limestone
  155. Metamorphic rock resulting from granite
  156. Metamorphic rock resulting from slate
  157. Gneisses derived from granite
  158. Gneisses derived from sedimentary rocks such as arkose
  159. Landforms made by running water
  160. A long alluvial ridge built up on either side of a stream channel during flood stage
  161. Dried playa bed covered with evaporites
  162. A gently sloping conical deposit formed by a stream emerging from a steep narrow valley onto a broader lowland
  163. Depositional surface formed by coalescing alluvial fans
  164. A level, fan-shaped accumulation of sediment where a stream empties into a quiet body of water, resulting in the building out of the shoreline
  165. Marsh on a poorly drained floodplain
  166. Delta made of coarse sediments with a triangular shape and many distributaries such as the Nile
  167. Delta formed at the mouth of a submerged stream
  168. Flooded stream mouth that has tides
  169. Movement of water along the shore due to waves striking the shore at an angle
  170. A sand bar extending across a bay or cove but attached only at one end
  171. A type of spit with a bent end
  172. A sandbar extending across the mouth of a bay or cove
  173. A protected body of water along a coastline
  174. Deposit of sand on a gently sloping shoreline, beach ridge, storm beach
  175. Depression between beach ridges
  176. Low-lying areas protected from wave action by bars, spits, and barrier beaches
  177. Type of tidal flat with dense vegetation cover and wide, wandering dendritic drainage channels
  178. Type of tidal flat with no vegetation and many small hairlike appendages on the wide, wandering drainage channels
  179. Type of tidal flat with no vegetation and without a well-developed drainage system
  180. An uplifted wave-cut terrace or wave-built terrace
  181. Old Pleistocene shorelines
  182. Glaciation in a mountainous region
  183. Glaciation by a large, irregularly shaped mass of recrystallized ice that acts like a plastic and flows outward and downward because of gravity
  184. Large, irregularly shaped mass of recrystallized ice that acts like a plastic and flows outward and downward because of gravity
  185. Large, irregularly shaped mass of recrystallized ice that acts like a plastic and flows outward and downward because of gravity and that blankets a large, non-alpine region
  186. A steep, blunt, bowl-shaped valley head in a mountainside at a high elevation, formed by glacial plucking and frost action at the head of a glacier
  187. A narrow saw-tooth ridge formed by glacial erosion on opposite sides of the ridge
  188. Sharp, pyramid-shaped peak formed by erosion by alpine glaciers on each side
  189. Tributary glacial valley in which the floor is notably higher than the floor of the main glacial valley
  190. Tributary stream valley in which the floor is notably higher than the floor of the glacial trough into which it leads
  191. Formed where a glacier advances over a steep slope, marked by crevasses
  192. A steep valley slope where a glacier has a maze of intersecting crevasses
  193. Glacial drift or till deposited chiefly by direct glacial action, the landform made of such material
  194. Moraine which builds up along the sides of a glacier and the resulting deposit
  195. The joining of two lateral moraines where a tributary glacier joins the main glacier
  196. Mass movement downslope of large blocks of ice and other materials
  197. Shape of a glacially eroded valley OR the valley of mature and old age streams
  198. U-shaped valley of a glacier
  199. Generally flat region of morainal deposits
  200. A long, narrow remnant ridge of sand and gravel which was in the bed of a stream on, under, or inside a glacier
  201. An elongated oval shaped hill deposited by a glacier which indicates the direction of movement of the ice
  202. The higher, broad, steep sloping end of a drumlin
  203. A group of drumlins
  204. A group of sand dunes
  205. A large group of sand dunes
  206. Sand dune with crescent shape and horns pointing downwind
  207. The pointed ends of a sand dune
  208. The leeward side of a dune
  209. The slope formed by a pile of loose material before it becomes too steep and slides or topples over
  210. Coallescence of barchans
  211. A sand dune with the gentle slope on the windward side and a ridge perpendicular to the wind direction.
  212. A long sand dune formed parallel to the wind direction
  213. Another name for longitudinal dunes
  214. The low area between longitudinal dunes or seifs
  215. Pyramidal sand mounds, roughly star-shaped or resembling a pinwheel formed by sand accumulation in an area with multiple wind directions
  216. Low circular or oval mounds of sand that develop when winds are sufficiently strong to bevel the normal upward growth of dune crests and associated with the upwind margins of some dune fields or sand seas
  217. Loess in the Mississippi valley that forms near vertical valley walls along major drainages
  218. Study from a regional perspective