VOCABULARY: oceanography; salinity; tide; tidal cycle; tidal interval; tidal range; high tide; low tide; spring tide; neap tide; flood tide; ebb tide; tsunami; storm surge; wave; current; upwelling; fetch; wave structure; trough; crest; wave height; wave length; period; wave speed; shoaling water; breaker; swash; backwash; rip current; undertow; beach; berm; bar; longshore current; beach drifting; groin; headland; bay; wave-cut cliff; notch; wave-cut terrace; wave-built terrace; marine terrace; sea cave; sea arch; stack; pebble beach; sand bar; offshore bar; spit; baymouth bar; tombolo; hook; lagoon; emergent; submergent; estuary; neutral; compound; harbor
What is the study of the oceans?
For every 100 pounds of sea water on the average, how many pounds of dissolved materials are contained?
By what means are dissolved materials removed from the oceans?
What factors cause salinity to vary?
What are two important gases dissolved in sea water?
What is the average temperature at which sea water freezes?
What is the duration between two high tides and two low tides?
How long is a tidal interval?
What is the term for the difference between the high tide and the low tide?
What tide occurs when the sun, moon, and earth are in line and is the highest tides every two weeks?
What tide is lower than normal when the sun and moon are at right angles occuring during the first quarter and the third quarter every two weeks?
What is the incoming tide?
What is the outgoing tide?
What is caused by seismic activity in ocean with a long wave length and improperly called a tidal wave?
What is caused by the low pressure and high water level from hurricane?
When the process is wave action, what is the agent of erosion?
What causes surface ocean currents?
What three factors influence the density of ocean water?
In a cross section of the Atlantic Ocean, what current flows from the subpolar regions beneath the surface waters?
In a cross section of the Atlantic Ocean, what current flows below the Intermediate Waters being colder and denser?
In a cross section of the Atlantic Ocean, what current is the coldest, densest, saltiest, and flows from the Antarctic to north of the equator in between twenty and forty years?
What is the importance of the Antarctic Bottom Waters?
How do waves differ from currents?
What causes waves?
What three factors influence the characteristics of a wave?
What is the length of straight open water over which the wind steadily blows?
What two forces limit a wave?
What is the high part of a wave?
What is the low part of a wave?
What is the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough?
What is the vertical distance from crest to trough?
What is the time required for one complete wave to pass?
What is the wave length ö by the period?
How deep does a wave reach beneath the surface?
What is the term for when a wave touches bottom?
What forms when a wave touches bottom?
Does a higer wave break farther or nearer to shore?
Why does a wave collapse when approaching the shore?
What is the rush of water up onto the beach?
What is the return of water back down the beach?
How does the berm differ between winter and summer?
How does offshore bar development change between winter and summer?
What two processes occur when waves strike the shoreline at an angle?
What is the movement of water along the shore when wave strike the shoreline at an angle?
What is the movement of beach particles along the beach in arched paths because of waves striking the shoreline at an angle?
What is a feature constructed to stop movement of materials along a beach?
What are two terms for the projections of land on an irregular shoreline?
What are two terms for the indentations of land on an irregular shoreline?
What is the effect of wave action on an irregular shoreline?
What are eight erosional shoreline features?
What is the steep escarpment that results from waves eroding a shoreline?
What is the indentation caused by the action of the waves against a wave cut cliff?
What is the underwater feature that results from waves wearing back a wave cut cliff?
What is the underwater feature that is made from the offshore deposition of the material eroded at a wave cut cliff?
What is a wave cut terrace or wave built terrace which has been uplifted and raised above sea level?
What is formed when a weak place in the rock is cut out by wave action and exposed during low tide?
What is formed when waves cut through vertical joints or walls of sea caves?
What is formed by the collapse of a sea arch?
What are two types of wave deposits?
What is the area between high and low tide and on irregular shorelines in bays or coves?
What factors influence the size of the particles on a beach?
What type of beach is formed when the slope is steep?
What are deposits of sand parallel to the mainland which may be covered during high tide?
What is the term for the sand bar that is not attached to the mainland?
What is the term for the sand bar with one end attached to a mainland projection?
What is the term for a sand bar with one end attached to the mainland but which has the other end curved by wave action?
What is the term for the sand bar the extends across the mouth of a bay or cove?
What is the term for a sand bar that connects an island to the mainland?
What is the area of water protected by a sand bar?
What are the four types of shorelines identified by Johnson?
What type of coast results when the continental shelf rises out of the sea or sea level drops?
What type of coast results when the land is land flooded by the sea?
What is a flooded river mouth which has tides?
Which type is exemplified by the southeastern coast of the United States?
Which type is exemplified by the northeastern coast of the United States?
What type of coastline is neither emergent nor submergent?
What type of coastline is a combination of these?
What are some examples of types of neutral shorelines?
Go to the Glossary of Landform Terms