VOLCANISM, FOLDS, AND FAULTS REVIEW QUESTIONS


VOCABULARY: diastrophism, isostacy, volcanism, plutonism, lava, magma, intrusive, extrusive, batholith, stock, laccolith, dike, volcanic neck, lava flow, fissure, volcano, vent, shield cone, cinder cone, composite cone, pyroclastic debris, quiet, explosive, volatiles, crater, caldera, intermediate, fissure, gasses and vapors, volcanic bombs, blocks, cinders, ash, dust, aa, pahoehoe, pillow, mud torrent, earthquake, seismology, seismograph, focus, Mercalli scale, Richter scale, epicenter, fold, fault, law of original horizontality, cross-bedding, law of superposition, law of cross cutting relations, relative dating, unconformity, contact, geologic map, block diagram, cross section, anticline, syncline, dome, basin, recumbent fold, dip, strike, differential erosion, joint, fault, vertical fault, normal fault, reverse fault, hanging wall, foot wall, hanging wall block, footwall block, overthrust fault, horizontal fault, strike-slip fault, transform fault, fault plane, fault trace, fault scarp, horst, graben, thrust fault, fault-block mountain

What is the folding, warping, and faulting or breaking of the earth's crust?
What is the balancing of crust?
What is all processes which give rise to magma, cause it to move, its expulsion from the earth, and which may refer to near or at surface only?
What refers only to magmatic actions?
How does magma move toward the surface?
What is molten rock at or near the earth's surface?
What is the environment of magma and resultant igneous bodies within the earth?
What is the environment of lava and resultant igneous bodies at or near the earth's surface?
What are five intrusive igneous bodies?
What is a large pocket of magma or rock cooled from magma?
What is a small pocket of magma or rock cooled from magma or a small batholith?
What is a "blister" which causes overlying layers to dome or bend upward?
What is magma cutting through preexisting rocks which is vertical or somewhat vertical?
What is the feeder pipe of a volcano?
What are the two types of extrusive bodies?
What is an extrusion of lava which flows over the surface of the earth?
What is a crack in the earth from which a lava flow may form if it is sufficiently fluid and does not emerge from a volcano?
What is a cone shaped mound of material extruded from within the earth?
What is the hole in the earth from which material comes to form a volcano?
What are the three types of volcanic cones?
What type of cone has a gentle slope, large base, and is fluid lava or basaltic?
What type of cone is small, steep, and a pile of ash and cinders blown out?
What type of cone is intermediate in size and slope with mixed lava and pyroclastic (fire fragment) debris?
What are the four types of eruptions?
What is the type of eruption that is non-explosive, produces basaltic lava, gives off gas, spreads, and tends to produce shield cones?
What type of eruption collects gasses which ignites?
What is the gaseous material dissolved in lava?
What is the depression at center of volcano?
What is a large crater or where explosion has blown away part of the cone or it has collapsed?
What type of eruption alternates between quiet and explosive?
What type of eruption is very fluid and produces the lava flow without forming a volcanic cone?
What are the products of an eruption?
What are the types of fragmental materials produced by a volcanic eruption?
What eruption product solidifies while it is airborne?
What are the three types of lava?
What lava is blocky and sharp surfaced?
What lava has a smooth ropelike appearance?
What lava cools fast and is formed in water?
What forms when ash mixes with precipitation to form a flowing mud mass?
What is the study of earthquakes?
Compare shallow and deep focus earthquakes.
Compare the Mercalli and the Richter scales.
What is the point at earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake?
Where are the five most likely regions for earthquakes?
What are the two reactions that rocks can make to pressure?
What law concerns that when sediment is deposited, it is USUALLY deposited in a horizontal layer?
What is an exception to the law of original horizontality?
What law concerns that when sediments are deposited, the oldest layer will be found underneath the younger, and they remain this way unless they are overturned?
What law concerns when one geologic feature cuts across another, the one which is cut across had to exist before hand so it is older than the feature which cuts through it?
What type of dating dates one event in relation to another?
What is a gap in the rock record which shows that erosion has occurred and removed materials form the area and then later more material was deposited on this erosion surface?
What is the boundary line between two different rocks (rock units)?
What illustration shows the rocks at the surface of the earth?
What illustration shows both a surface view and the rocks at depth?
What illustration shows the rocks within the earth with the top line as the surface and which is like looking at a slice cut into the earth?
What is an upfold of the rock layers?
Relative to the center, what is the direction of dip for an anticline?
What is a downfold of the rock layers?
Relative to the center, what is the direction of dip for a syncline?
What is a double upfold of the rock layers?
What is a double downfold of the rock layers?
Comment about dip and rock age.
What is a strongly folded or overturned fold?
What is the angle between a horizontal plane and a rock layer?
What is the orientation in which rock layer is intersected by a horizontal plane, at right angles to the dip direction?
True or false--Rocks weather and erode at the same rate.
What term describes the important point that the resistance of the rock units is the greatest influence on the topography?
Describe the resistance or each of the following rocks in humid and in arid climates.
limestone
sandstone
shale
coal
igneous
metamorphic
What is a break in the rocks along which no movement has taken place?
What is a break in the rocks along which movement HAS taken place?
What type of fault has up and down movement?
What type of fault has the footwall block ending up elevated relative to the hanging wall?
What type of fault has the footwall block ending up relatively lower?
What is a very low angle reverse fault?
What are the four terms for faults with horizontal movement?
What is the plane of breakage along which movement occurs in a fault?
What is the line at the intersection of the fault plane with the surface or a horizontal plane?
What is a cliff that results from vertical faulting?
What is a block that has been raised by faulting between two others?
What is a block that has been lowered by faulting between two others?
What are two terms for very low angle reverse fault?
What are the three kinds of mountains?



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