EARTH MATERIALS REVIEW QUESTIONS


VOCABULARY: crust, Moho, Mohorovii discontinuity, sima, sial, mantle, core, molten, inner core, outer core, asthenosphere, mineral, rock forming minerals, general properties, special properties, color, streak, luster, hardness, form, cleavage, fracture, tenacity, specific gravity, vitreous, Moh's scale, elastic, odor, magnetism, quartz, feldspar, calcite, diamond, graphite, halite, silicates, carbonates, rock, rock cycle, texture, composition, rock family, igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, lava, magma, sediment, lithification, metamorphism, cycle, intrusive, extrusive, slow, fast, fast with gas, very fast, mixed, aphanitic, vesicular, vesicles, porphyritic, porphyry, matrix, phenocrysts, pyroclastic, pegmatic, granite, diorite, gabbro, rhyolite, andesite, basalt, pumice, scoria, pegmatite, clastic, chemical, organic, precipitate, evaporite, conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, (bituminous) coal, rock symbols, contact metamorphism, regional metamorphism, foliated, non-foliated, gneiss, slate, schist, quartzite, marble, bedrock, outcrop

What are the zones of the earth in cross-section from the surface to the center?
Where is the Moho?
Which zone represents most of the mass of the earth?
Which of the cores is molten?
What are the two types of materials which compose the crust?
What two terms are used to describe the composition of the continental crust?
What two terms are used to describe the composition of the oceanic crust?
What is a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid with a definite chemical composition, characteristic internal structure, and related physical properties?
What are the formulas for the following minerals?
quartz
calcite
ice
diamond
graphite
halite
What type of properties are found in all minerals?
What type of properties are found in only some minerals?
Is color always a diagnostic general property for minerals?
What is the color of the powdered mineral?
What general property describes the light reflected from the surface of a mineral?
What general property do the terms pearly, vitreous, satiny, and adamantine describe?
What general property is the resistance to abrasion or being scratched?
What is the hardness of quartz?
What general property is the tendency to break along planes of weakness in the crystalline structure?
What general property is the irregular breakage of a mineral?
What general property is the resistance to being broken or bent?
How does cleavage differ from fracture?
How does cleavage differ from tenacity?
What general property compares the weight of the specimen to the weight of an equal volume of water?
Name two special properties.
What is the largest mineral group or mineral family?
What mineral family includes calcite?
How is a hand specimen viewed as being a rock?
Why is the rock cycle an example of a repetitive exchange?
What is the term for liquid rock?
What is the term for molten rock within the earth?
What is the term for molten rock at or near the earth's surface?
How is an igneous rock formed?
What is the term for broken rock material?
What is the process called whereby sediment is cemented and compacted to be turned into a rock body?
How is a sedimentary rock formed?
What is the process when heat, pressure, and/or chemical action change a rock?
How is a metamorphic rock formed?
True or false--Melting can produce metamorphic rocks.
By what two criteria are rocks identified?
True or false--A rock may have two textures.
True or false--An igneous rock can have a foliated texture.
What is the rate of cooling of a rock with a phaneritic texture?
What is the rate of cooling of a rock with an aphanitic texture?
What is the rate of cooling of a rock with a vesicular texture?
What is the rate of cooling of a rock with a porphyritic texture?
How does a rock with a pyroclastic texture form?
If a rock cools in mixed environments, what is the term for the main mass of the rock?
If a rock cools in mixed environments, what is the term for the larger crystals?
What is the texture of an igneous rock with very large crystals?
What are the three divisions of the sedimentary rock family?
Which division is made of broken rock fragments?
Which division is made of dissolved materials which have precipitated out or been deposited by evaporation?
Which division is made of dissolved materials which have been formed into hard parts by organisms?
What is the dominant mineral in clastic division sedimentary rocks?
What is the dominant mineral in the chemical and organic division sedimentary rocks?
What are the rock symbols for each of the following?
igneous rocks (three symbols)
conglomerate
sandstone
siltstone
shale
limestone
(bituminous) coal
metamorphic rock
What are the two types of metamorphism?
Which type of metamorphism results from intrusive or extrusive volcanism or being heated by a nearby mass of molten rock?
Which type of metamorphism results from deep burial?
What term describes the texture of a layered metamorphic rock?
What term describes the texture of a metamorphic rock with no directional banding and which is often one dominant mineral?
What rock is metamorphosed to become gneiss (pronounced nice)?
What rock is metamorphosed to become slate?
What rock is metamorphosed to become quartzite?
What rock is metamorphosed to become marble?
What rock is the result of high grade metamorphism?
Describe each of the following rocks by their family, texture and composition.
granite
diorite
gabbro
rhyolite
andesite
basalt
pumice
scoria
tuff
conglomerate
sandstone
siltstone
shale
limestone
(bituminous) coal
gneiss
slate
schist
quartzite
marble
anthracite
What percentage of the earth's crust is composed of basalt and gabbro?
What percentage of the earth's crust is composed of granite and diorite?
What percentage of the earth's crust is composed of other igneous rocks?
What percentage of the earth's crust is composed of metamorphic rocks?
What percentage of the earth's crust is composed of sedimentary rocks?
What percentage of the outer ten miles of the earth is composed of igneous rocks?
What percentage of the rocks exposed at the earth's surface are sedimentary?
What percentage of sedimentary rocks are shale?
What percentage of sedimentary rocks are limestone?
What percentage of sedimentary rocks are sandstone?
What is the solid rock composing the earth's crust?
What is bedrock exposed at the earth's surface?



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