SOILS PARTIAL TEST BANK
  • The broken bedrock beneath the true soil itself is called: (a) humus; (b) clay; (c) solum; (d) regolith; (e) steppe.
  • Layers in a soil profile are called: (a) horizons; (b) peds; (c) humus; (d) zones; (e) regolith.
  • The hard layer found in regions of calcification is called: (a) humus; (b) solum; (c) regolith; (d) prairie; (e) caliche.
  • Partially decomposed organic matter in the soil is: (a) humus; (b) clay; (c) solum; (d) regolith; (e) steppe.
  • The materials which are deposited as a result of leaching are left in the: (a) humus; (b) zone of eluviation; (c) zone of illuviation; (d) O horizon; (e) R horizon.
  • The most important factor influencing soil development is: (a) climate; (b) parent material; (c) time; (d) site; (e) organic activity.
  • Soil with the finest sized particle sizes is: (a) sand; (b) silt; (c) clay; (d) loam; (e) humus.
  • The shape and size of the LUMPS in the soil is the: (a) chemistry; (b) profile; (c) solum; (d) texture; (e) structure.
  • In areas with warm climates and much leaching of the silica, the typical pedogenic process is: (a) laterization; (b) gleization; (c) calcification; (d) podzolization; (e) salinization.
  • The size distribution of mineral particles in the soil is the: (a) chemistry; (b) profile; (c) solum; (d) texture; (e) structure.
  • The property characterized by the soil's pH is its: (a) texture; (b) profile; (c) peds; (d) color; (e) chemistry.
  • The pedogenic regime associated with xerophytic plants would be: (a) laterization; (b) gleization; (c) oxidation; (d) podzolization; (e) salinization.
  • The generic soil classification system of the 1960's based on soil properties or qualities is: (a) the United States Comprehensive Soil Classification System; (b) the Seventh Approximation; (c) the "Great Soil Groups"; (d) the Soil Profile; (e) BOTH A and B above.
  • The soil BEST associated with the desert climate and desert biome is: (a) alfisols; (b) inceptisols; (c) aridisols; (d) spodosols; (e) oxisols.
  • The soil BEST described as young with horizons just beginning to form is: (a) aridisols; (b) mollisols; (c) inceptisols; (d) ultisols; (e) entisols.
  • The soil from grass cover found in regions surrounding deserts with little leaching and good organic buildup are: (a) alfisols; (b) histosols; (c) mollisols; (d) ultisols; (e) oxisols.
  • The pedogenic regime BEST associated with the tropical rainforests is: (a) laterization; (b) podzolization; (c) calcification; (d) gleization; (e) salinization.
  • In which of these would a calcium carbonate horizon be most likely (a) spodosol; (b) entisol; (c) oxisol; (d) aridisol; (e) histosol.
  • The true statement about soil is: (a) it is defined as fine rock particles; (b) the less water and vegetation present, the weaker the development of the soil; (c) decayed organic materials is not a true part of the soil; (d) ALL of these are true; (e) NONE of these are true.
  • Of the five factors which influence soil formation: (a) parent materials is generally most important; (b) topography is affected only by elevation; (c) the role of organisms is solely the production of humus; (d) time applies only to residual soils; (e) climate implies the relationship to vegetation.
  • The accumulation in a lower part of the profile of material eluviated from above is: (a) leaching; (b) illuviation; (c) precipitation; (d) organic sorting; (e) cheluviation.
  • The type of soil characteristic of the boreal forest is: (a) vertisol; (b) ultisol; (c) histosol; (d) oxisol; (e) podzols.
  • The factors of soil formation include: (a) climate and time; (b) parent materials; (c) site and organic activity; (d) A and B above; (e) ALL of these.
  • The soil layer characterized as rich with minerals and organic matter from above, more compact and lighter in color than overlying layers, and a higher clay content is the horizon called the: (a) A; (b) B; (c) C; (d) O; (e) R.
  • The soil characterized by expansion and contraction with wetting and drying from areas of Australia, India and east Africa is: (a) vertisols; (b) histosols; (c) mollisols; (d) oxisols; (e) spodosols.
  • The accumulation of salts in the soil which can result from irrigation in deserts is called: (a) desert varnish; (b) deflation; (c) deflocculation; (d) salinization; (e) desalinization.
  • The spread of desert-like conditions is: (a) desalinization; (b) pluvials; (c) eolian; (d) deflocculation; (e) desertification.
  • The true soil itself is called: (a) humus; (b) clay; (c) solum; (d) regolith; (e) steppe.
  • The broken and partially decomposed bedrock is called: (a) humus; (b) solum; (c) regolith; (d) prairie; (e) caliche.
  • Leaching is MOST pronounced in the: (a) solum; (b) zone of eluviation; (c) zone of illuviation; (d) O horizon; (e) R horizon.
  • Soil with a mixture of particle sizes is: (a) sand; (b) silt; (c) clay; (d) loam; (e) humus.
  • In areas with long and cold winters, the typical pedogenic process is: (a) laterization; (b) gleization; (c) calcification; (d) podzolization; (e) salinization.
  • The pedogenic regime associated with hygrophytic plants would be: (a) laterization; (b) gleization; (c) calcification; (d) podzolization; (e) salinization.
  • The soil classification system of 1938 based on environment and genesis dividing into three types is: (a) the United States Comprehensive Soil Classification System; (b) the Seventh Approximation; (c) the "Great Soil Groups"; (d) the Soil Profile; (e) BOTH A and B above.
  • Organic soils such as from peat bogs are: (a) inceptisols; (b) mollisols; (c) histosols; (d) spodosols; (e) vertisols.
  • The soil BEST described as recent soils occurring in any geomorphically active area such as on sand dunes, floodplains, or mountain slopes is: (a) aridisols; (b) histosols; (c) oxisols; (d) ultisols; (e) entisols.
  • The soils of advanced development in warm humid climates with pronounced leaching such as in southeastern United States and southeastern China are: (a) alfisols; (b) histosols; (c) vertisols; (d) ultisols; (e) entisols.
  • The "ashy" soils are the: (a) entisols; (b) spodosols; (c) alfisol; (d) ultisols; (e) mollisols.
  • A moist version of the mollisols which develops under tree cover such as in South Africa and the area east of Moscow, Russia is the: (a) alfisols; (b) vertisols; (c) histosols; (d) entisols; (e) spodosols.
  • The soil which develops in a warm humid climate which has long been stable, with a heavy rainfall, and illuviation of clay, iron, and aluminum such as in Brazil and central Africa is: (a) oxisols; (b) vertisols; (c) entisols; (d) inceptisols; (e) mollisols.
  • The two soils which are most important for agriculture are: (a) entisols and inceptisols; (b) aridisols and histosols; (c) alfisols and mollisols; (d) aridisols and inceptisols; (e) vertisols and aridisols.
  • A soil rich in organic material will be: (a) dark brown; (b) white; (c) gray; (d) red; (e) yellow.
  • When soil is perpetually frozen it is called: (a) podzol; (b) permafrost; (c) endemic; (d) chaparral; (e) xerophytic.
  • The soils associated with permafrost are: (a) andisols; (b) histosols; (c) gelisols; (d) alfisols; (e) mollisols.
  • The soils associated with volcanic ash are: (a) andisols; (b) histosols; (c) gelisols; (d) alfisols; (e) mollisols.

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