Abstracts of major papers for EH 450, EH 450G

NCAA Rules in Transition
by Pam Hodges
        The purpose of this paper was to look at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to determine the function and regulations of the organization. Information obtained for this paper came from the official NCAA web site, <www.ncaa.org/>. There is an enormous amount of information about the NCAA, its committees and the rules that are made and enforced. I found several sub-categories on the home page that simply stated the mission of the association.
        For the prospective student athlete planning to enter college, the pages on initial clearinghouse, academic eligibility, and amateurism will have answers to their questions. In order to abide by the rules, the student athlete should look a information on recruiting, National Letter of Intent, and         agents.
        For this paper I looked at the eligibility rules for each division and found some are not fair to certain athletes. Current proposals will be discussed at the regular meeting in June, so there is hope that some of these rules will be different for next season.

The NAACP Boycott in South Carolina in a
Historical Perspective:
Civil Rights, Alternative Flags of Heritage and Racism
by Leon Lindsey

        We are all Americans.  There are different kinds of Americans.  We are Irish, German, African, Mexican, but we are American.  We look different.  We have different features, but we all like and want similar objects.  We want happiness, our children to sleep as we may not have slept, comfortable.  We want our ancestors to be viewed in a bright light, not a disrespectful light.  It does matter what people think of our ancestors because they gave us the views we have of the world today.  We would not want someone to say your ancestors were wrong in their beliefs.  They fought for the wrong side.  Their flag does not deserve to fly.
         There is a catch, this is not the flag your ancestors fought to “keep it flying.”  The flag which flies today is a sign of oppression and offensive in the eyes of many.  The flag is not the Confederate battle flag of the Civil War but a “naval jack.”  The NAACP has boycotted the state of South Carolina because the flag flies atop, like no other state in the Union, the Statehouse in Columbia.  The NAACP started the boycott on January 1, 2000.  It was started to hurt the state economy and it has been effective on its face.  The two sides of the spectrum see the flag as complete opposites.  One views the flag as heritage and the other views the flag as hate.
         I see the flag as both heritage and hate.  Heritage in those who fly it proudly, but those who fly the flag in a trashy manner and only those who fly the flag know the difference.  There are those who use a completely different flag, the true battle flag of those soldiers in the war between the states.  The people I am referring to are not being boycotted or are not in the news being called hate-mongers.  We are different, but we are Americans and that is what we have in common.

Re-defining the American Western:
Feminist and Culturalist Perspectives in the Lives and Writing
of Helen Hunt Jackson and Elizabeth Robins
by Jimmy Whited
        Just as the men of the United States have done throughout history, the women have worked long hard tiring hours for the causes that capture their attention and intrigue them. It is with their dedication to a purpose and zest for a change that many causes come to national attention and are eventually changed.  Two such women that worked for a change and fought for a cause are Helen Fiske Hunt Jackson and Elizabeth Robins. Elizabeth Robins was a writer, an actress, a feminist, and an expatriate. Like Robins, Helen Hunt Jackson was also a fiction and nonfiction writer.  While growing up, she was a poet in her native home of Amherst, Massachusetts.
         Jackson and Robins were activists of their day; however, they chose very different roads in which to act.  Jackson could not be classified as a political woman.   They were both women writing about the American West at the “close” of the frontier.  This does not limit what they were writing to the genre of the American “Western.”   It simply refers to that specific area and time.  According to some definitions, they are indeed writing within the guidelines of the American Western. It is true that Robins and Jackson both had literary aspirations outside of the genre of the Western; however, both had works that fall well within the typical guidelines.  Their works are probably not what mainstream culture would call typical Western stories, but they include facets of the Western just the same. The fact that both Jackson and Robins have fictitious stories about life in the Old West is a minor point.  Critics like Norris Yates tend to limit the possibilities of the writers within the genre.  At the same time, others like Richard Etulain offer a better, more open-ended category.
        Robins and Jackson were women who wrote with the American West on their mind  and did not simply fall into the trap of letting classifications and genres determine the themes and undercurrents within their works of fiction.  Instead, they allowed their thoughts and ideas about the issues they deemed important to become apparent in what they wrote.  They found a theme to which they could support, and stuck to it.  For Robins, women’s suffrage was an urgent need, and she became a spokesperson and proponent for the right to vote in her fiction and nonfiction.  Like Robins, Jackson found an issue to which she grasped.  For Jackson, the plight of the Native Americans became a life-long theme in both her fiction and her nonfiction.  These women created fiction from their real life experiences and gave their life to fight for a cause.  Though they chose a different course in life, both were able to find common ground in which to express their thoughts and ideas in literature of the American West.

Securing Ground:  Issues in Threats to Computer Security:
New Technology and Protection Acts
by Daniel McCabe
        In this rapidly growing world of advanced technology, it has become clear that computer crime and other information security breaches pose a growing threat to U.S. economic competitiveness and the rule of law in cyberspace.  It has also become clear that the financial cost is tangible and alarming.  Biometric devices are becoming more commonplace, which will allow iris and fingerprint identification to replace pin numbers and passwords in the near future of the business world.  These pin numbers and passwords are currently secured by advanced techniques of encryption, which works by encoding the text of a message.  The world of internet and database security is progressing very rapidly; however, without the aid of the federal government, true security cannot be  attained.
        Therefore, the FBI has established National Infrastructure Protection and Computer Intrusion Squads in selected offices throughout the United States.  The mission of these squads is to investigate violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986, including intrusions to public switched networks, major computer network intrusions, privacy violations, industrial espionage, pirated computer software and other crimes where the computer is a major factor in committing the criminal offense.  With biometrics, advanced encryption, and the assistance of the FBI, Internet security can set the worldwide standard for all forms of electronic security.

A Virtuous Woman?
A Study of Isabella in Measure for Measure
by Janet Penland
        "A woman of noble character, who can find one? She is worth far more than rubies…A woman who fears the Lord is to be praised" (Proverbs 31:10,30). Is this woman found in Measure for Measure? Does Isabella "display the truly heroic and greater virtues," as William Burgess states in his book The Bible and Shakespeare? He is of the opinion that Isabella "is an irresistible portraiture of the highest of moral purity" (69). Throughout his chapter entitled "Heroes and Heroines," Burgess, who wrote his book in 1903, invests the women of Shakespeare with truly admirable qualities that are not reasonable, but seem to be a blind glorification of womankind as a whole,. when women were more idolized as paradigms of virtue than today. Harold Bloom, on the other hand in his volume, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human, written in 1998, is more realistic toward Isabella. I tend to agree with his opinion that she is flawed, as are all the other characters in this play, and is more multi-dimensional and interesting because of these faults. He says: "Isabella is his [Shakespeare’s] most sexually provocative female character" (365). Bloom goes on to say that "something of her unconscious sexual power is suggested by that desire for sterner discipline" (365). He believes that this, not purity is the reason for her rejection of Angelo’s proposition.
         This paper was conceived by some responses written on-line to a professor of English who had noted a great disparity between the attitudes of the students today and forty years ago towards Isabella’s chastity. It seems that, like Burgess then, and Bloom and Marx today, their is a different attitude toward sexuality and women in general that makes Isabella’s umbrage seem outlandish and cruel to the students of today. One student said: "I would s---- any man to save my brother. Bloom comments that "Isabella’s sadism" is evident as she reacts "with all her pent-up force" against her brother as he tries to convince her to save his life.(373). Steven Marx’s is of the same opinion. He says, in his chapter on the play from Shakespeare and the Bible, that "Isabella is guilty not because of her choice to preserve her chastity and refuse the cruel bargain, but because of her righteous malice that now, like Angelo’s, would condemn her brother to die"(87). Her guilt is that of a false faith -- one based on "fear rather than faith" (Marx 87).
         Isabella’s actions at the end show a very different woman than at the beginning of the play. She has left her self righteousness behind and learned true mercy. When the Duke proposes to her, she does not respond, but we are left with the impression that she will -- favorably. She has gone through fire and been tested and refined, like gold, and is now a worthy woman, suitable to be the Duke’s wife. Her judgment now is tempered with true mercy that comes from forgiveness. When she forgives Angelo and begs for his life, she follows Christ’s example in her life and is able to live in the world, not as a puritanical judge, but as a fellow human with similar faults and frailties.

All work above was submitted on the final day of May term, May 31, 2000, as partial completion of the final exercise for the course.